Introduction: Acute Myeloid Leukemia is a heterogeneous neoplasia characterized by the proliferation of immature myeloid cells. Cytogenetic analysis has revealed the presence of chromosomal aberrations of importance in the patient prognosis. Objective: To determine cytogenetic risk groups in pediatric Acute Myeloid Leukemia patients according to overall survival. Materials y methods: Observational cross-sectional study. The clinical records of pediatric patients diagnosed with de novo Acute Myeloid Leukemia admitted to the National Institute of Neoplastic Diseases, between 2001 and 2011, with cytogenetic analysis in bone marrow were included. Cytogenetic risk groups were established according to the criteria of the Medical Research Council. The global survival curves were performed with the Kaplan-Meier method and were compared using the log-rank test and Cox regression with the R version 3.3.2 software. Results: 130 patients were included, 68 male (52,3%) and 62 female (47,7%), mostly of the M2 subtype (33%). The average age was 7,7 (range 0-15 years old). Chromosomal aberrations were observed in 60,8%, the most frequent being the translocation t(8;21). According to the global survival analysis, two cytogenetic risk groups were observed: favorable and unfavorable. Conclusion: Two cytogenetic risk groups were determined: high and standard.
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