The Essential Oil of Petroselinum crispum (Mill) Fuss Seeds from Peru: Phytotoxic Activity and In Silico Evaluation on the Target Enzyme of the Glyphosate Herbicide

Oscar Herrera-Calderon, Abdulrahman M. Saleh, Ammar A.Razzak Mahmood, Mohamed A. Khalaf, James Calva, Eddie Loyola-Gonzales, Freddy Emilio Tataje-Napuri, Haydee Chávez, José Santiago Almeida-Galindo, Javier Hernán Chavez-Espinoza, Josefa Bertha Pari-Olarte

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2 Scopus citations

Abstract

Petroselinum crispum (Mill) Fuss is an aromatic plant belonging to the Apiaceae family and used in gastronomy as a spice. Several studies have been developed in leaves but studies are limited in seeds, especially the essential oils obtained from seeds. The aim of this study was to determine the phytochemical profile of the volatile compounds of this essential oil by gas-chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in order to evaluate its phytotoxic activity on Lactuca sativa seeds and to carry out an in silico analysis on the target enzyme of the herbicide glyphosate 5-enolpyruvylshikimate 3-phosphate synthase (EPSP). The essential oil was obtained by steam distillation for two hours and then was injected into a GC-MS, the phytotoxic assay was carried out on Lactuca seeds and the in silico evaluation on the EPSP synthase focused on the volatile compounds similar to glyphosate, docking analysis, and molecular dynamics to establish the protein–ligand stability of the most active molecule. The chromatographic analysis revealed 47 compounds, predominated by three compounds with the most abundant percentage in the total content (1,3,8-ρ-menthatriene (22.59%); apiole (22.41%); and β-phellandrene (15.02%)). The phytotoxic activity demonstrated that the essential oil had a high activity at 5% against L. sativa seed germination, inhibition of root length, and hypocotyl length, which is comparable to 2% glyphosate. The molecular docking on EPSP synthase revealed that trans-p-menth-6-en-2,8-diol had a high affinity with the enzyme EPSP synthase and a better stability during the molecular dynamic. According to the results, the essential oil of P. crispum seeds presented a phytotoxic activity and might be useful as a bioherbicide agent against weeds.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2288
JournalPlants
Volume12
Issue number12
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 2023

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 by the authors.

Keywords

  • GC-MS
  • aromatic plants
  • bioherbicide
  • essential oil
  • in silico
  • parsley
  • volatile oil

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