Seasonal susceptibility of citrus scions to Phytophthora citrophthora and P. nicotianae and the influence of environmental and host-linked factors on infection development

L. A. Alvarez, D. Gramaje, P. Abad-Campos, J. García-Jiménez

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17 Scopus citations

Abstract

Three citrus scions were evaluated to determine seasonal changes in susceptibility to infections by Phytophthora citrophthora and Phytophthora nicotianae. In a period of 24 months, the Clementine mandarin cv. Hernandina, the hybrid Fortune mandarin and the sweet orange cv. Lane-Late were branch-inoculated under field and laboratory conditions. Field studies showed that the cultivars inoculated with P. citrophthora developed the highest lesion areas during March-June (spring) and September-October (autumn) and with P. nicotianae from June to August (summer). However, lesion areas on detached citrus branches did not show a definite pattern of infection because lesion sizes fluctuated irregularly during the study. The lesion area caused by P. nicotianae in different citrus scions correlated significantly with the monthly mean maximum values of temperature, relative humidity, and the percentage of the relative water content in the 24-month period of inoculations. In contrast, there was no correlation between these variables and the extent of colonisation by P. citrophthora. Nevertheless, a significant relationship was observed between lesion areas caused by P. citrophthora from October to May of each year and the same variables that were significant in inoculations with P. nicotianae. Seasonal changes in the susceptibility of citrus cultivars to P. citrophthora and P. nicotianae may facilitate timing of disease control measures to coincide with periods when disease development is greatest.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)621-635
Number of pages15
JournalEuropean Journal of Plant Pathology
Volume124
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 2009
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Aerial infections
  • Branch canker
  • Citrus cultivars
  • Seasonal variation

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