This study aims to optimize simultaneously the lipid profile and instrumental hardness of low-fat mortadella. For lipid mixture optimization, the overlapping of surface boundaries was used to select the quantities of canola, olive, and fish oils, in order to maximize PUFAs, specifically the long-chain n-3 fatty acids (eicosapentaenoic—EPA, docosahexaenoic acids—DHA) using the minimum content of fish oil. Increased quantities of canola oil were associated with higher PUFA/SFA ratios. The presence of fish oil, even in small amounts, was effective in improving the nutritional quality of the mixture, showing lower n-6/n-3 ratios and significant levels of EPA and DHA. Thus, the optimal lipid mixture comprised of 20, 30 and 50% fish, olive and canola oils, respectively, which present PUFA/SFA (2.28) and n-6/n-3 (2.30) ratios within the recommendations of a healthy diet. Once the lipid mixture was optimized, components of the pre-emulsion used as fat replacer in the mortadella, such as lipid mixture (LM), sodium alginate (SA), and milk protein concentrate (PC), were studied to optimize hardness and springiness to target ranges of 13–16 N and 0.86–0.87, respectively. Results showed that springiness was not significantly affected by these variables. However, as the concentration of the three components increased, hardness decreased. Through the desirability function, the optimal proportions were 30% LM, 0.5% SA, and 0.5% PC. This study showed that the pre-emulsion decreases hardness of mortadella. In addition, response surface methodology was efficient to model lipid mixture and hardness, resulting in a product with improved texture and lipid quality.
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© 2018, Association of Food Scientists & Technologists (India).
- Fatty acid profile
- Mixture design
- Response surface methodology (RSM)