Mutual coupling effects in 2×2 antenna array for ground penetrating radar on multilayered soil

Marco Antonio Becerra-Pérez, Tanith Guerra-Huaranga, Maria Elisia Armas-Alvarado, Mark Clemente-Arenas, Ruth Esther Rubio-Noriega

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Caral stands as the Americas’ oldest city, boasting a heritage spanning 5,000 years. Over time, various natural forces have woven a complex geological stratum. To gain a deeper understanding of the Caral civilization, non-intrusive exploration methodologies like ground penetrating radar (GPR) are beginning to be used. This method safeguards the integrity of ancient subterranean remains. A GPR system is in development, tailored to the [200-500] MHz range, employing a 2×2 antenna array with dual polarization. These features enhance resolution without compromising penetration depth. However, using multiple antennas within complex, multilayered environments introduce impedance band constraints and exacerbates antenna coupling issues. This study assesses the coupling of two antenna candidates: the Vivaldi with defected ground structures (DGS) and the log periodic dipole array (LPDA). The scattering parameters show that the LPDA antenna performed better considering measured and simulated data. Cross-polarization exhibited a broader bandwidth in the LPDA antenna, evident in both simulated and measured data. Additionally, a comprehensive comparison of GPR simulations for each antenna type within an 11-level multilayer medium, with different electromagnetic properties, further highlights LPDA. This antenna boasts a 209 MHz bandwidth and a coupling better than -23 dB for the cross-polarization configuration, firmly showing its best performance.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)812-823
Number of pages12
JournalIndonesian Journal of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 2024
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2024 Institute of Advanced Engineering and Science. All rights reserved.


  • Co-polarization
  • Cross-polarization
  • Georadar
  • Ground penetrating radar
  • Log periodic dipole array
  • Vivaldi


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