Global Inequities in COVID-19 Vaccination: Associated Factors and Tools to Measure Inequality

Ubaldo Miranda-Soberón, Isabel Pino-Arana, Jeny del Rio-Mendoza, Mario Chauca

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Introduction: Socioeconomic factors have been recognized by the WHO as determinants of health, and it is important to consider these factors in decision making to curb existing inequality in vaccination for SARS-CoV-2, which causes COVID-19. Objective: We aimed to determine whether there is a correlation between socioeconomic factors and vaccination worldwide and measure inequality. Method: A study of secondary sources was carried out to assess inequality in vaccination against COVID-19 worldwide and its association with socioeconomic factors. For this assessment, 169 countries were chosen from January 2020 to March 2022 using LibreOffice and JASP Several mathematical models and statistical tests were used, including a normality test, an analysis of frequencies and proportions, a Kruskal–Wallis test, Spearman’s correlations, a Lorenz curve, a Concentration Index, and a slope. Results: Correlations were found between socioeconomic factors and vaccination with one, two, and three doses. As the GDP showed correlations of 0.71 for one dose and 0.82 for three doses, we found that the greater the competitiveness of the countries, the higher the percentage of vaccinated individuals in their populations. According to the Concentration Index, there was greater inequality in vaccination with regard to receiving a higher number of doses, as reflected in the life expectancy indices of 0.16–0.19 and 0.50. The continent with the highest degree of inequality was Africa, and the continent with the lowest degree was America. South Americans were vaccinated with two doses at a rate of 6.19%/month, which was 4.3 times faster than Africans, with 72% of the population being vaccinated in South America, compared to only 16% in Africa. Conclusion: There is inequality in vaccination against COVID-19 with one, two, and three doses, which is associated with socioeconomic factors.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1245
Issue number7
StatePublished - Jul 2023

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This study was funded by the authors.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 by the authors.


  • COVID-19
  • inequities
  • socioeconomic factors
  • vaccination


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