Exploring Pijuayo (Bactris gasipaes) Pulp and Peel Flours as Fat Replacers in Burgers: A Multivariate Study on Physicochemical and Sensory Traits

Alex Y. Llatas, Heiner Guzmán, Fernando Tello, Roger Ruiz, Jessy Vásquez, Grisel Chiroque, Jhony Mayta-Hancco, Melina L.M. Cruzado-Bravo, Hubert Arteaga, Erick Saldaña, Juan D. Rios-Mera

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Meat products are known for their lipid profile rich in saturated fats and cholesterol, and also for the formation of oxidation compounds; therefore, a reduction in animal fat may result in a product less harmful to health. Pijuayo is an Amazon fruit known for its nutritional properties, such as its fiber and lipid content. For these reasons, it is an attractive fruit to replace animal fat in meat products. The present work used pijuayo pulp and peel flours to partially replace animal fat in beef-based burgers at 25% and 50% levels, considering sensory and physicochemical outcomes evaluated by Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Correspondence Analysis (CA) and Multiple Factor Analysis (MFA). Pijuayo flour affected the physicochemical characteristics evaluated by PCA, where the samples with greater fat replacement were characterized by a high carbohydrate content and instrumental yellowness. The minimal fat replacement did not abruptly affect the PCA’s instrumental texture and color, proximal composition, yield properties, and lipid oxidation. The overall liking was greater in the 25% fat reduction treatments, even greater than the control, in which positive sensory attributes for liking were highlighted for those treatments. A small segment of consumers (11% of total consumers) preferred the treatment with greater replacement of fat with pijuayo peel flour, which these consumers tended to characterize as seasoned. However, this treatment had the lowest liking. The MFA showed that the sensory characteristics tender and tasty were strongly correlated with overall liking and were highlighted in the samples of 25% fat reduction, suggesting that the pijuayo improves the tenderness and flavor of reduced-fat burgers. Other inclusion levels between 25% and 50% of fat replacement could be explored, and optimization studies are needed. In addition, the sensory characteristics and flavor-enhancing compounds of the fruit, as well as the nutritional aspects of the inclusion of pijuayo, should be studied, such as the fatty acid profile. These characteristics will be informative to explore pijuayo as a fat replacer at a pilot scale and industrial scale.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1619
Issue number11
StatePublished - Jun 2024
Externally publishedYes

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Publisher Copyright:
© 2024 by the authors.


  • Amazon fruits
  • fat substitutes
  • multivariate statistical analysis
  • physicochemical characteristics
  • sensory characteristics


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