Design of an MPPT Technique for the Indirect Measurement of the Open-Circuit Voltage Applied to Thermoelectric Generators

Ricardo Marroquín-Arreola, Jinmi Lezama, Héctor Ricardo Hernández-De León, Julio César Martínez-Romo, José Antonio Hoyo-Montaño, Jorge Luis Camas-Anzueto, Elías Neftalí Escobar-Gómez, Jorge Evaristo Conde-Díaz, Mario Ponce-Silva, Ildeberto Santos-Ruiz

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


This paper presents the design of a maximum power point-tracking (MPPT) technique for DC–DC converters that are used in energy-harvesting systems based on thermoelectric generators. This technique is based on the analysis of the characteristics of the converter to measure the open-circuit voltage indirectly. The main contribution of this article is that the algorithm measures the voltage at the maximum power point without the need to disconnect the source of the circuit, as happens when the fractional open-circuit voltage (FOCV) technique is used. The algorithm is based on a predetermined initial duty cycle, which is applied to the circuit, and the input voltage and input current are read. With these values, the open-circuit voltage and short-circuit current are calculated with equations obtained from the circuit. Then, it calculates the duty cycle at the maximum power point and applies it to the circuit. If this duty cycle does not obtain the maximum power from the circuit, the algorithm starts a second stage based on fuzzy logic to calculate an increase or decrease in the duty cycle. The designed technique was evaluated using a topology based on a DC–DC flyback converter variant and was compared with the P&O technique and obtained better results. The designed technique provides between 3.9% and 5.6% more power to the load than the P&O technique in a 20 W system.

Original languageEnglish
Article number3833
Issue number10
StatePublished - 1 May 2022
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


  • DC–DC converter
  • MPPT
  • fuzzy logic
  • indirect measurement
  • open-circuit voltage
  • thermoelectric generators


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