CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 Genes Associated with Tricontinental and Latin American Ancestry of Peruvians

Angel T. Alvarado, María Saravia, Ricardo Losno, Ricardo Pariona, Ana María Muñoz, Roberto O. Ybañez-Julca, Berta Loja, María R. Bendezú, Jorge A. García, Felipe Surco-Laos, Doris Laos-Anchante, Haydee Chávez, Priscilia Aguilar, Mario Pineda

Research output: Contribution to journalShort surveypeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Precision medicine seeks to individualize the dose from the beginning of pharmacological therapy based on the characteristics of each patient, genes involved in the metabolic phenotype, ethnicity or miscegenation, with the purpose to minimize adverse effects and optimize drug efficacy. The objective was to review studies that describe the association of the CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 genes with the tricontinental and Latin American ancestry of Peruvians. A bibliographic search was carried out in PubMed/Medline and SciELO, with various descriptors in Spanish and English. The results of this review confirm that the ethnic origin of Peruvians is tricontinental due to European (mainly Spanish), African and Asian migration, in addition to Latin American migration, being 60.2% mixed, 25.8% Amerindian, 5.9% white, 3.6% African descent, 1.2% Chinese and Japanese descent, and 3.3% unspecified. Studies on CYP2C19*3, CYP2D6*2, *3 and *6 have been reported in Peruvians, and the frequency is similar to that studied in Ecuadorians and Colombians. The CYP2C19*3, CYP2D6*3, and CYP2D6*6 alleles found in Peruvians are common in Europeans, Africans, and Asians; while CYP2D6*4 in Africans and CYP2D6*2 related to Asians. In some studies, the ethnic/gene association has not been demonstrated; while others have shown a significant association, which is why further investigation is warranted. It is concluded that the studies on CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 genes associated with the tricontinental and Latin American ancestry of Peruvians are little, and according to what has been investigated, the CYP2C19*3, CYP2D6*2, *3, *4 and *6 alleles have more related to their ancestry.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)14-26
Number of pages13
JournalDrug metabolism and bioanalysis letters
Issue number1
StatePublished - 2023

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 The Author(s). Published by Bentham Science Publisher.


  • CYP2C19
  • CYP2D6
  • alleles
  • ethnicity
  • peruvians
  • pharmacogenetics


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